Types of Joint Replacement Surgery in Pakistan

Types of Joint Replacement Surgery in Pakistan:
Our body is like a working machine, locomotion is a part of daily life. Sometimes consciously and sometimes unconsciously we keep on moving our body. This movement is possible because of the joints in the body that aid in the movement. Our joints are in a continuous state of motion due to which problems may arise. Age factor leads to the degeneration of bones and the weakening of joints due to arthritis. Moreover, joints can also get damaged by an injury, a fracture or any other disorder.

What is joint replacement surgery?
It is a procedure in which the damaged joint is removed from its location and replaced with an artificial joint called prosthesis that is made of a ceramic, metal or plastic material. This artificial joint is a replica of the joint removed and impersonates its locomotive motion.

When joint replacement surgery is recommended?
An injury can cause severe damage to the cartilage with which the bones articulate. Foremost thing is to treat the damage with medicine, physiotherapy or exercises. But if these remedies do not work and joint becomes more painful and swollen then doctors recommend joint replacement surgery after a few examinations.
The most common types of joint replacement surgery in Pakistan are that of knee and hip but other surgeries like that of ankle, shoulder, elbow, and wrist are also conducted. Below are the mentioned types of joint replacement surgery in Pakistan.

Knee Anatomy of joint:
The knee is a hinge joint that is between the thigh bone i.e femur and shinbone i.e tibia. Knee cap also called patella connects the lower end of the femur with the topmost part of the tibia. The end where the bones meet is covered with cartilage that helps to move the knee easily.
How the procedure is carried out
Knee replacement is also called knee resurfacing because the surface of the bones is replaced only. A small amount of bone along with the cartilage covering the ends of femur and tibia is removed, replaced with metal components and cemented to fix them properly. This step recreates the surface of the joint. After that undersurface of the kneecap is carefully cut and a plastic button is placed to resurface it. To make the joint move smoothly a spacer made of plastic is placed between the metal components.

Elbow Anatomy of joint
The elbow is a hinge joint made by the connection of three bones that is the upper arm bone called humerus and two lower arm bones that is radius and ulna. Cartilage covers the ends of the bones where they meet each other to ensure smooth gliding of joint.
How the procedure is carried out
In this type of joint replacement surgery, the damaged parts are removed and replaced with metal components. Two metal stems are inserted in the hollow space of bones. The artificial hinge joint is made up of metal and plastic. Different types of elbow replacements are done and components are of different sizes. Also, the partial elbow replacement option is there but the right option can be selected by discussing it with the doctor.

Wrist Anatomy of joint:
The anatomy of the wrist joint is very complicated. It consists of two rows of bones called carpels on the hand side of the wrist. Each row consists of four bones. The first row of bones is connected to the radius and ulna of the lower arm and the second row radiate out to form the finger and thumb bones.

How the procedure is carried out?                                                                Wrist joint replacement surgery is often carried out along with other procedures to treat deformities and disorders in nerves, tendons, and joints of the fingers and thumb. This surgery is often done as an outpatient procedure.
Surgery is done by making a small cut at the back of the wrist. The damaged parts of the radius and ulna connected to the lower row of wrist carpel and the first row of the carpel are removed. Then artificial radial components are inserted to the center of the radius bone of the lower arm, which is fixed by bone cement. According to the built of the component, the carpal components are fixed to the center hand bone by screwing or by cementing into the leftover row of carpal. A plastic spacer is used between components for the smooth gliding of joints.

Shoulder Anatomy of joint:
The shoulder bone comprises of three bones that is humerus, scapula and clavicle. The humerus is the upper arm bone, the scapula is the shoulder blade while clavicle is the collarbone. The shoulder is a ball and socket joint where the ball is at the top of upper arm bone which fits into the socket at the shoulder blade. To ensure smooth movement the surfaces of the bones where they meet are covered with cartilage.

How the procedure is carried out?
The damaged parts of the shoulder joint are removed carefully and replaced with artificial components that are made of metal. Either both ball and socket are replaced or just the ball at the top of the humerus bone.
Hip Anatomy of joint:
The hip is the largest bone in the human body that has a ball and socket joint. The large bone I.e pelvis is connected to the thigh bone I.e femur through a socket called the acetabulum. Whereas the ball is on the head of the femur bone. The surface of the ball and socket joint is covered with cartilage that protects the ends of the bones and helps to move easily.
How the procedure is carried out?
The damaged ball on the top of the femur is carefully removed and a metal stem is inserted into the hollow centre of femur then the metal or ceramic ball is placed over the metal stem. Then the socket attached to the pelvic bone is replaced with a metal socket. Cement or screws are used to fix the socket to the pelvis. A spacer made up of ceramic, metal or plastic is sandwiched between ball and socket to ensure smooth movement of the joint.
Ankle Anatomy of joint
The ankle joint is formed where the tibia joins the talus. Tibia is the shinbone while talus is the foot bone. Cartilage covers the ends of the joint where the bones connect each other to make the movement of joint smooth and easy.
How the procedure is carried out?
A cut is made on the foot to reach the affected ankle joint. The damaged parts on the end of tibia and talus are removed and replaced with artificial metal components. A plastic is inserted between the components to ensure smooth movement by the joint.

Conclusion:
Joint pain is something that should not be overlooked by the patient. No matter what the cause is, immediately consult your doctor for the advice if the pain is intolerable or is not curing with medicine. Several famous orthopedic surgeons doing different types of joint replacement surgery in Pakistan. Among these include Dr M. A Wajid Lahore, Dr Sajid Aslam Khwaja, Rawalpindi, Prof. Dr Lal Muhammad Khan Kakar, Quetta, Dr Muhammd Munir Ahmed Khan, Islamabad, Dr Niaz Hussain Hyderabad and many more.

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